A temperature differential applied across the device changes its Fermi energy, creating an electrical potential.

Standard semiconductor fabrication methods build the 3.5-mm-sq solid-state generators. Power density is >3 W/cm2 at a ΔT = 120°C, higher than that of bulk materials and about 1/20th the thickness. Target markets and applications include automotive, military and aerospace, thermal batteries, medical implants and wireless sensor networks.

Nextreme, www.nextreme.com