ABS resins are hard, rigid, and tough, even at low temperatures. They consist of particles of a rubberlike toughener suspended in a continuous phase of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer. Various grades of these amorphous, medium-priced thermoplastics are available offering different levels of impact strength, heat resistance, flame retardance, and platability.

Most natural ABS resins are translucent to opaque, and they can be pigmented to almost any color. Grades are available for injection molding, extrusion, blow molding, foam molding, and thermoforming. Molding and extrusion grades provide surface finishes ranging from satin to high gloss. Some ABS grades are designed specifically for electroplating. Their molecular structure is such that the plating process is rapid, easily controlled, and economical.

Compounding of some ABS grades with other resins produces special properties. For example, ABS is alloyed with polycarbonate to provide a better balance of heat resistance and impact properties at an intermediate cost. Deflection temperature is improved by the polycarbonate; molding ease, by the ABS. Other ABS resins are used to modify rigid PVC for use in pipe, sheeting, and molded parts. Reinforced grades containing glass fibers, to 40%, are also available.

Related to ABS is SAN, a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile (no butadiene) that is hard, rigid, transparent, and characterized by excellent chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and ease of processing. SAN resins are usually processed by injection molding, but extrusion, injection-blow molding, and compression molding are also used. They can also be thermoformed, provided that no postmold trimming is necessary. (Because the material is not toughened, thermoformed shapes may crack during conventional trimming operations.)

Properties: ABS plastics offer a good balance of tensile strength, impact and abrasion resistance, dimensional stability, surface hardness, rigidity, heat resistance, low-temperature properties, chemical resistance, and electrical characteristics. These materials yield plastically at high stresses, so ultimate elongation is seldom significant in design; a part usually can be bent beyond its elastic limit without breaking, although it does stress-whiten. While not generally considered flexible, ABS parts have enough spring to accommodate snap-fit assembly requirements.

Impact properties of ABS are exceptionally good at room temperature and, with special grades, at temperatures as low as -40°F. Because of its plastic yield at high strain rates, impact failure of ABS is ductile rather than brittle. Also, the skin effect which, in other thermoplastics, accounts for a lower impact resistance in thick sections than in thin ones, is not pronounced in ABS materials. A long-term tensile design stress of 1,000 to 1,500 psi (at 73°F) is recommended for most grades.

General-purpose ABS grades may be adequate for some outdoor applications, but prolonged exposure to sunlight causes color change and reduces surface gloss, impact strength, and ductility. Less affected are tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness, and elastic modulus. Pigmenting the resins black, laminating with opaque acrylic sheet, and applying certain coating systems provide weathering resistance. For maximum color and gloss retention, a compatible coating of opaque, weather-resistant polyurethane can be used on molded parts. For weatherable sheet applications, ABS resins can be coextruded with a compatible weather-resistant polymer on the outside surface.

ABS resins are stable in warm environments and can be decorated with durable coatings that require baking at temperatures to 160°F for 30 to 60 min. Heat-resistant grades can be used for short periods at temperatures to 230°F in light load applications. Low moisture absorption contributes to the dimensional stability of molded ABS parts.

Molded ABS parts are almost completely unaffected by water, salts, most inorganic acids, food acids, and alkalies, but much depends on time, temperature, and especially stress level. FDA acceptance depends to some extent on the pigmentation system used. The resins are soluble in esters and ketones, and they soften or swell in some chlorinated hydrocarbons, aromatics, and aldehydes.

Properties of SAN resins are controlled primarily through acrylonitrile content and molecular weight of the copolymer. Increasing both improves physical properties, at a slight penalty in processing ease. Properties of the resins can also be enhanced by controlling orientation during molding. Tensile and impact strength, barrier properties, and solvent resistance are improved by this control.

Special grades of SAN are available with improved UV stability, vapor-barrier characteristics, and weatherability. The barrier resins -- designed for the blown-bottle market -- are also tougher and have greater solvent resistance than the standard grades.

Applications: Molded ABS products are used in both protective and decorative applications. Examples include safety helmets, camper tops, automotive instrument panels, and other interior components, pipe fittings, home-security devices and housings for small appliances, communications equipment, and business machines. Chrome-plated ABS has replaced die-cast metals in plumbing hardware and automobile grilles, wheel covers, and mirror housings.

Typical products vacuum-formed from extruded ABS sheet are refrigerator liners, luggage shells, tote trays, mower shrouds, boat hulls, and large components for recreational vehicles. Extruded shapes include weather seals, glass beading, refrigerator breaker strips, conduit, and pipe for drain-waste-vent (DWV) systems. Pipe and fittings comprise one of the largest single application areas for ABS.

Typical applications for molded SAN copolymers include instrument lenses, vacuum-cleaner and humidifier parts, medical syringes, battery cases, refrigerator compartments, food-mixer bowls, computer reels, chair shells, and dishwasher-safe houseware products. Because of their compatibility with many higher-priced resins, SAN resins are also used as color-concentrate carriers for some engineering resins.