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Gaskets fill space between two clamped components, while elastomeric static seals rest in grooves on one component or the other to ensure tight mating. Mechanical packing, contacting radial lip, as well as non-contacting labyrinth and visco seals are dynamic seals that keep lubricants in and foreign particles out. Placed between components that move relative to one another, they are subject to wear and dynamic forces.
Special textures and helices on dynamic seals can actually pump lubricants back to their origin. Nitrile seals are low in cost; neoprene is weather-resistant; ethylene propylene resists even powerful acids and alkalis. However, excessive heat causes most synthetics to dry, crack, and fail.
ACCESSORIES: Springs and dampers
Rings and springs hold components on shafts or in a housing. Under constant loading, both can also act as spacers to compensate for radial and axial dimensional variation and to isolate vibration.
Rings and springs increase precision and predictability of load-deflection curves. By taking up additional clearance in bearings and other components, springs also decrease wear and increase life. Other uses include oil dams and oil-slinger rings.