Quantifying waste From the railway vehicle Gold plating, 8% Functions and features customers do not need or want. Excessive safety factors, overspecifications, and unnecessary requirements or those left over from previous designs, 11%. High-grade fire-resistant train seats. These are usually required on trains traveling through tunnels, but are put on a train that never goes through a tunnel. Suboptimal concepts, 15% Inferior solutions but already in production on other vehicles. For instance, a floor that is 40% more expensive but no more capable than other floors. Lazy designs, 7% Designs that do not fully use the components or materials better than those required. Poor application of design for manufacturing and assembly, 5% A complex seat attachment. If simplified, assembly time could be cut by 60%. Failure to design for supply, 12% Panels purchased from domestic suppliers with high costs. The table identifies and evaluates waste found in the design of a railway vehicle. It comes from The Line on Design study by A.T. Kerney.