Readers will find several PDFs such as the one titled Bolt Reactions HandCalcs.pdf at The files contain detailed hand calculations with arithmetic for the models in this series. The files are also available from Dearth at FEA models, RigidMdl_BoltReactions_v2004.mod and FlexMdl_BoltReactions_v2004.mod, are small enough to process using limited-node or demo versions of MSC/Nastran v2004. To obtain a free copy of the limited-node software, log onto: or telephone MSC Software at (866) 672-1549. However, the files will also work in any version of Nastran.