They can be applied to curved surfaces, tolerating bending radii as low as 20 mm. The transducers are made by placing a piezoceramic foil between two conductive films and embedding everything in a ductile composite-polymer structure. In this way, the brittle piezoceramic is mechanically prestressed and electrically insulated. Wear and failure rates are low because the solid-state actuators contain no moving parts.

Physik Instrumente L.P., 16 Albert St., Auburn, MA 01501, (508) 832-3456, pi-usa.us