PVD coating systems from Vapor Technologies Inc., Longmont, Colo. (www.vaportech.com), use low-temperature arc vapor deposition to apply metallic coatings. The process bonds electrically conductive materials, including pure, alloyed, and reacted metal coatings, to almost any substrate, including low-temperature ones such as plastic and zinc plating. A gear drive spins parts in a dual-axis planetary motion around the coating source, ensuring complete coverage of complex parts. The machine makes use of 80% of the coating material, so only 20% is lost. Other coating technologies waste as much as 70% of the coating material. Batch chambers measure up to 62 in. in diameter and 78 in. high. There are also continuous in-line systems for high-volume operations. An electropolished 304-stainless-steel chamber has clamshell doors that simplify loading and unloading. The chambers also have removable steel liners for easy cleanup. Heaters inside the chambers keep substrates at optimum temperatures for each step of the deposition process. Computer controls lets operators use standard or custom "recipes" and monitor all process parameters.