A patented insert molded tube technology from Metaldyne, Plymouth, Mich., was used to die cast a front engine module assembly (FEMA) for V-6 and V-8 engines. The tube assembly is made from welded together mandrel bent 304 stainless steel. Each casting is produced from 380 aluminum with a minimum wall thickness of 3.0 mm. The process needs no special tooling or equipment. Compared to sand or semi-permanent mold casting, insert molded tubes are said to improve fluid flow efficiency, eliminate leaks, and reduce weight and cost.