Most domestic manufacturers and suppliers of electrical equipment are well acquainted with standards of the Underwriters Laboratories and National Electrical Code. But, if you market equipment for use in Canada, you need to know the requirements of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) as well.
Headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, the association engages in three principal activities:
• Developing standards and codes.
• Certifying to these standards and to other national or international standards.
• Quality registration (through the Quality Management Institute, a division of CSA).
This private organization has developed standards for everything from electrical connections and motorcycle helmets to offshore oil and gas platforms. These standards apply in eight major areas, one being electrical and electronics, which covers installation codes for buildings, consumer and commercial products, environmental products, and wiring.
Generally, CSA standards contain requirements to ensure protection against fire hazard, mechanical hazard, and shock or energy hazard. One of the most significant in this area is the electrical aspect, which is covered later.
Certification means that products conform to accepted standards on a continuing basis. Products so certified can display the CSA Certification Mark, which is a registered trademark.
Certification in Canada is becoming more important to both producers and users of a product, regardless of the country of manufacture.
Though CSA Certification applies mainly to CSA standards, the organization also certifies to U.S. standards such as ANSI/UL, and to international standards such as IEC (International Elec trotechnical Commission and ISO (International Organization for Standardization). In addition, CSA Verification may be based on standards of other agencies.
A license to use the CSA mark is only given after a thorough testing and evaluation process. CSA then visits the production facilities to verify that the product is manufactured according to the agreement with CSA.
There are four types of certification:
• Model certification. This is the most commonly used option. Here, CSA evaluates and tests a sample of the product at one of its test centers.
• Witness testing certification. In this case, product evaluation and testing take place either at the manufacturer’s facility or at another suitable facility designated by the customer.
• Shared certification. Here, the manufacturer assumes more of the certification work — performing tests and preparing the report for submittal to CSA.
• Category certification. This option helps those whose products are in areas of rapidly changing technology. Because some product life cycles are so short, rapid certification is needed. Here, the manufacturer not only performs the tests and prepares the report, but also assures himself that the product complies. In this case, CSA makes frequent visits to the manufacturer to monitor the certification process.
Those who buy electrical products for use in their machinery should be aware of the Canadian standards and certification requirements for the specific type of electrical equipment, such as motors, controls, and sensors.
All of the Canadian provinces have adopted the CSA electrical standards, which means that certification is mandatory for all electrical products to be installed in Canada.
These standards focus mainly on safety from electrical shock and fire hazard. For example, an exposed electrical device operating at a voltage exceeding 30 Vac or 42.4 Vdc is considered a shock hazard.
A fire hazard is generally considered to exist in a circuit where the energy available is higher than Class 2 levels (equipment that operates at voltages up to 20 V). Because motors operate at 120 V or higher (Class 1), they are considered to be a potential fire hazard.
To illustrate the types of standards involved and the related certification process, consider electrical motors. Standards for motors include the general-purpose Canadian Electrical Code plus two specific standards covering motors and generators (see box).
The Canadian Electrical Code — Part I contains requirements for the installation of electrical equipment. It covers all electrical work and electrical equipment operating in buildings and on premises except equipment used in the operation of electrical or communication utilities, electric railways, railway signaling and communications, aircraft, and marine vehicles.
This code is mandatory throughout Canada, meaning that all electrical equipment must be manufactured so it can be installed in accordance with the code.
The Motors and Generators standard specifies construction, marking, and test requirements for all types of electrical motors that are intended to be installed and used in accordance with the Canadian Electrical Code. It covers ac and dc motors, plus fractional and integral horsepower types, with no limit on maximum horsepower or voltage (they have certified up to 10,000 hp at voltages to 13,800 V).
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This basic standard applies to all motors for nonhazardous locations. The standard for Motors with Inherent Overheating Protection contains additional requirements for motors up to 600 V with a protective device connected in the motor circuit, and for impedanceprotected motors up to 5,000 V with a protective device in an external control circuit. It also applies to motors with protective devices responsive to either motor temperature alone or both temperature and current.
If a component is CSA-certified, the evaluation is limited to verifying that the component is used within the restrictions of the Certification Report.
Once all construction requirements are met, the product is tested and assessed for various characteristics. The basic motor standard (C22.2 No. 100) specifies the following tests:
Temperature Test: When delivering rated output power at rated voltage and speed, the steady-state winding temperature must not exceed the maximum permitted for the insulation system.
Rating Test: When delivering rated output at rated voltage and frequency, the input current must be within 10% of the marked rating.
Dielectric Strength Test: A high voltage (usually twice rated voltage plus 1,000 V) is applied to verify that the insulation is adequate.
The standard for motors with overheating protection (C22.2 No. 77) specifies these additional tests, during which the maximum winding insulation temperature must not be exceeded:
Running Heating Temperature Test: The motor is run at the maximum steady load that does not cause the protector to trip.
Locked-Rotor Temperature Test: Here, the motor is stalled (rotor is locked so it can’t turn).
Locked-Rotor Endurance Test: The motor is tested for 18 days under lockedrotor condition. In addition to imposing a temperature limit, this test permits no serious motor damage, excessive deterioration or breakdown of the insulation, fire hazard, or shock hazard.
Some additional tests may be required for special motor constructions.
Free trade and standards
The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the U.S. and Canada, which went into effect in Jan. 1989, stipulates (in part) that product standards shall not be perceived as a barrier to free trade. With the implementation of the FTA — and the pending expansion to a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which will also include Mexico — harmonization of standards and product approval procedures have taken on new importance.
As a result of the FTA, the Canadian Standards Association and the Underwriters Laboratories Inc. are working closely with each other and with various North American industries to develop compatible standards and coordinate certification procedures. There is also a program in some areas for the reciprocal acceptance of test and compliance evaluation data. This means that UL can perform tests to the CSA standards and the results will be accepted by CSA.
Electrical motor standards
Three basic publications apply to electrical motors: CSA Standard C22.1-1990, Canadian Electrical Code — Part I; Standard C22.2 No. 100-M92, Motors and Generators; and Standard C22.2 No. 77-1988, Motors With Inherent Overheating Protection.
These motor standards differ somewhat from their U.S. counterparts. The primary difference is that UL Standard 1004 (used in the U.S.) does not require full load tests or rating tests such as those required by Canadian Standard C22.2 No. 100.
Standards range far and wide
The CSA has produced over 1,400 standards for the safety and performance of products, processes, and services. The standards are developed by consensus approach in committees that include representatives of industry, professional associations, government and regulatory authorities, and consumers.
In addition to electrical products, these standards cover many areas including machine safety (agricultural, forestry, and mining conveyors), radiation hazards for electronic equipment, materials technology (welding and metallurgy), and basic engineering (drawings, tolerances, keys and keyways, metric units and practice).